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1. The separate kingdoms of England and Scotland were united under the name of Great Britain in 1707, although the two kingdoms had had the same king since 1607. Ireland, whose king had been the same as the king of England since Henry VIII, remained a separate Kingdom, however, until 1801. In 1689, the Parliament of "Great Britain" deposed James II, and gave the throne to William of Orange. James retained the loyalty of his Irish subjects and fled to Ireland, where William made war against him, and defeated his armies in the Battle of the Boyne, 1 July 1690. All the Irish under arms were permitted to leave the country, but the terms of the treaty were dishonoured, and the Penal Legislation followed. The Williamite War. King James paid his troops by coining his melted down cannon. Gun money. As far as I know, these are the only coins of a "Kingdom of Ireland."
2. The Irish "Lords" were the feudal barons. Tirawley is one of the baronies of County Mayo. While they do not have much to offer on Mayo, Irish Chiefs and Leaders, by Paul Walsh (1960), The Great O Neill, by Sean O Faolain (1942), and The Twighlight Lords, by Richard Berleth (1978), offer interesting background. I'm sure there's something else for a later period. Do you know The Year of the French? We were in Killala when they were making it. The music is by The Chietains.
3. Well, of course! At least 32nd cousins 32 times removed. Crossmolina is in Tirawley.
4. Do you know the Sean Connery movie, The Molly Maguires? It's about the Pennsylvania mines in the 1870's; our Paddens were all out of there by 1859, but you can see what it must have been like. God save Ireland. God bless America!