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DNA
Posted by: Joyce Hoad (ID *****7344) Date: November 14, 2004 at 17:10:43
  of 1080

The 'new' way of researching our lineage is to have a DNA test.

However there are certain pitfalls.
First is to know that a line can be traced either through the paternal or maternal lines.
This means that females are at a disadvantage if trying to trace their surname,[lineage] as they can only go through their mother, and her mother etc.
A brother or male relative is needed to trace the line backwards

See info below.



All of us carry a specific type of DNA in our cells, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited exclusively from our mothers. Our mothers in turn inherited their mtDNA from their mothers; who inherited it from their mothers and so on back through time.
All men carry a Y-chromosome in every cell of their bodies, which is inherited exclusively from their fathers. Indeed, it is the Y-chromosome that makes men male!
only men have a Y-chromosome. However, women wishing to use these services need only find a direct male relative who is willing to provide a sample.
Our Y-Clan™ service analyses your Y-chromosome DNA (yDNA) to establish the link between you and your ancestral clan. analysis is performed using ten genetic markers, results come in the form of a ten-digit Y-Clan™ signature. Scientific research has shown that these Y-Clan™ signatures are inherited.
Native American Inheritance Chart 1. Our Native American tests effectively trace EITHER the Male OR Female line only. To test positively for Native American Ancestry you must have a direct line of descent. If M0 took this test it would trace through the left-outermost branch of the chart only. This follows the laws of genetics. Y or mtDNA testing cannot determine a % of Native American ancestry. Our tests can only tell if you are descended in a direct line to the Native American. If you are a male attempting to determine if your Native American Ancestry is from your fathers' side, your genealogical chart MUST match the line below! M0-M1-M2-M4-M8 Remember...this test will only work if the test takers' fathers fathers fathers father was a Native American on his fathers side. (whew) Table 1. View this chart to determine who can successfully take the Native American test.
       

M8       +       F8              M9       +       F9              MA       +       FA              MB       +       FB              MC       +       FC              MD       +       FD              ME       +       FE              MF       +       FF
       I                            I                            I                            I                            I                            I                            I                            I       
       M4       ….       +       ….       F4                            M5       ….       +       ….       F5                            M6       ….       +       ….       F6                            M7       ….       +       ….       F7       
                     I                                                        I                                                        I                                                        I                     
                     M2       ….       ….       ….       +       ….       ….       ….       F2                                                        M3       ….       ….       ….       +       ….       ….       ….       F3                     
                     GrandFather       I                                                                                                                I       GrandMother                     
                                                 I                                                                                                                I                                                 
                                                 M1       ….       ….       ….       ….       ….       ….       ….       +       ….       ….       ….       ….       ….       ….       ….       F1                                                 
                                                 Father                                          I                                          Mother                                                 
                                                                                                         I                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         I                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         I                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         I                                                                                                         
                                                                        Brother M0 FO Sister                                                                               

2. The mtDNA test is designed to track DNA that is passed only through the Mother's line and cannot be passed on through the male line. (Note--Men receive mtDNA from their mothers but do not pass it on to the next generation) In this case M0 or his sister F0 can be tested (it makes no difference). However the line tracked now is on the right-outermost branch of the chart. That means that to test positive for Native American ancestry the line of descent must be passed from the mothers mothers mothers side, back to the woman who was a Native American on her mothers side. If your lines of descent do not follow this genetic rule, you will not be successful taking this test and you must employ a cousin who follows the pattern below: F0-F1-F3-F7-FF M0-F1-F3-F7-FF For any family branches 'inside' the chart, i.e. not the outermost-male or outermost-female branches then you have to find cousins, uncles, aunts etc. on those lines who would make a Y-chromosome or MtDNA test worthwhile for those branches (i.e. on THEIR chart you are now looking at the outermost branches). If you are a male or female and want to test for Native American ancestry on your direct maternal line (mother's mother's mother's mother and so on...), this is the test you need to order:Native American test for the maternal lineIf you are a male and want to test for Native American ancestry on your direct paternal line (father's father's father's father and so on...), this is the test you need to order:Native American test for the paternal line



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