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Re: Sackville - Turner connection??
Posted by: mark milker (ID *****9699) Date: July 23, 2004 at 08:52:00
In Reply to: Sackville - Turner connection?? by Carolyn Turner of 148

Hi, again!

I came across the following from the Administrative History portion of the The Glynde Place Archives [GLY/1139 - GLY/3508]at the East Sussex Record Office web site. [Note the reference to John Turnor's marital relationship with the Sackville family and his son named Sackville Turnor]:


John Trevor IV who inherited Glynde in 1679 was the head of a Welsh family with estates centring on the residences of Trevalyn in Denbigh and Plas Teg in Flint. He and his successors chose to live at Glynde and in London and he brought many of his family archives to his new home in Sussex. These archives provide many details about the Trevors and their affairs which were unknown to a recent historian of the family.

The Trevors of Trevalyn were a junior branch of the Trevors of Brynkinalt in Denbigh, who claimed royal descent from Tudor Trevor, a Welsh prince of the tenth century. At first there was little to distinguish the Trevors from many other Welsh squires of ancient lineage but they had an eye to the main chance, had the good fortune to find patrons to satisfy their ambitions and by the end of the sixteenth century had risen to be one of the leading families in east Denbighshire. The history of their advance in the early years of the century is obscure. In March 1528/9 the King granted to John Trevor, yeoman of the guard, a lease for ten years of the lordships and manors of Sandeford and Osleston in the Lordship of Bramfield and Yale in Denbighshire; in 1539 the reversion of his keepership of wood in 'Le little parke' in the lordship of Chirk was granted to Geoffrey Bromefelde. This John Trevor may have been the father of the Elizabethan John Trevor III who set the family on its upward path by joining the service of Sir Richard Sackville (d. 1566 see D.N.B.), Treasurer at Wars to Henry VIII and Chancellor of the Court of Augmentations, to whom he was related by marriage. The close and friendly relationship with the Sackvilles was maintained after Sir Richard's death and in his will of 1589 John Trevor commended his children to the care of Lord Buckhurst and his heir Mr. Robert Sackville. Only the outlines of John Trevor's career are known from his funeral inscription in Gresford church: 'The years of his youth he spent abroad in the wars in France under Henry VIII; the middle years of his life he passed in travelling through foreign countries; his latter days he spent at home in the government and service of his native country.' In 'his latter days' he held two minor offices, that of particular surveyor of lands in Cheshire in the survey of the Exchequer at a salary of 13 6s. 8d. granted during pleasure on 19 Aug. 1559 and Queen's attorney in the lordship in Bromfield and Yale at 5 yearly in 1575. The Sackvilles evidently rewarded John Trevor with annuities from their Sussex properties; from 1563-75 he was enjoying annuities of 60 from the manor of Wilmington, 13 6s. 8d. from 'Wanmarshe,' and 13 6s. 8d. from 'an Iron myll in Sussex that one Boyer doth occupie.' John Trevor began to build Trevalyn Hall in Allington, Denbigh, in 1576 which was completed in about 1606.

John Trevor III died in 1589 leaving five sons; Randle died soon after him; the others Richard, John, Sackville and Thomas were men of ability winning knighthoods for their achievements in the army, public office, the navy and law. Richard inherited the family estates but soon ran heavily into debt, no doubt by trying to maintain 'the port, charge and countenance of a gentleman.' He tried to repair his fortunes by obtaining local offices and pressed his brother John to win favours for him from his patrons in London. Ireland offered many opportunities for the Welsh gentry in the sixteenth century and Richard distinguished himself in the Irish wars winning a knighthood from Lord Deputy Russell in 1597. His career in local politics as follower of the Earl of Essex has been treated by Professor A. H. Dodd and his part in two lurid election disputes in Denbigh in 1588 and 1601 has earned him a place in Professor J. E. Neale's The Elizabethan House of Commons. Sir Richard had no sons by his marriage with Catherine Puleston and his brother John arranged to relieve him of his financial difficulties on the assurance that his heirs would inherit the Trevor estate on Sir Richard's death. Of the two younger brothers Sir Sackville had a distinguished fighting career ending with the rank of admiral and Sir Thomas was appointed Solicitor-General to the Prince of Wales in 1619 and fourth Baron of the Exchequer in the following year.

John, the second brother, was the ancestor of the Trevors of Glynde. He is a choice example of the corrupt and avaricious Jacobean courtier in an age of the lowest standards, when even the Lord Chancellor Bacon could be bribed. John began his career as secretary to Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham, afterwards Earl of Nottingham. Lord Buckhurst had married Margaret Howard, daughter of the 4th Duke of Norfolk and Professor Dodd believes that 'it may well have been through her that the next generation of the Trevors moved into the more perilous orbit of the Howards.' More perilous certainly but much more profitable. John Trevor was given the junior of the two seats for the Howard pocket borough of Bletchingley in the 1597 parliament and he shared with Nottingham's younger son Charles Howard an annuity out of the valuable farm of the sweet wines. In 1598 Nottingham as Lord High Admiral obtained John's appointment as Surveyor to the Navy, one of the five coheiress of Edmund Hampden of Wendover, Buckinghamshire. Chamberlain reports that in 1617 a marriage with the son of Sir John Packington had been arranged for this lady by her uncle Sir Alexander Hampden which 'came so neere to conclusion that all articles were agreed, and the wedding clothes made, but when yt came to the upshot, the gentlewoman had no manner of liking, nor could by any meanes be persuaded which so displeased her uncle, that he left her worse by ten thousand pound than he meant to have don, which doth no whit grieve her in respect that she hath her choice.' Her choice was Sir John Trevor II and in the draft articles of their marriage settlement it is carefully set down that the marriage had been arranged 'with the good likinge love and trewe affectione of the sayd John Trevor and Anne Hampden as they profess and acknowledge, without compulsione of their parents or friends.' John's marriage was a happy one but his sister Jane has an unsatisfactory husband, Sir Edward Fitton, bart., of Gawsworth, a drunkard and spendthrift, who was only saved from financial ruin by his brother-in-law Trevor.

The main interest of Sir John Trevor II's career is why he chose to join the side of Parliament in the Civil War rather than the Crown to which he and his father had been indebted for their grants of office. After the death of the Earl of Nottingham in 1624 the Trevors had found a new patron in the Earl of Pembroke who was a leader of the opposition to the court and the Duke of Buckingham. Through his wife, Anne Hampden, Sir John was related to other opposition families, the Wenmans, Dentons and Winwoods, and by his son John's marriage with Ruth, the daughter of John Hampden 'the Patriot,' he was doubly linked with that famous family. Moreover Sir John was a Puritan by conviction as is shown by his membership of the Propagation Committee for North Wales and the protection he later gave to a Denbigh minister ejected under the Act of Uniformity.

Sir John had several grievances against the Crown. He and his partners had been forced to renew their lease of the coal farm in 1639 before the old lease expired and pay a high price for the privilege. In the same year he had been required to go with the king to the North and in the next year to lend Charles 1,000 and he was reluctant to do either. Finally he was deprived of his office of Surveyor of Windsor Castle. All these considerations must have prompted Sir John to support the Long Parliament in which he sat from 1640-53 as member for Grampound. He was a supporter of Cromwell to whom he was distantly related and he sat on various parliamentary committees during the Interregnum. He was an extensive buyer of land from the Treason Trustees and yet was sufficiently pliable to be an early supporter of the Restoration. principal posts in the administration, which carried a salary of 40 a year and great opportunities for enrichment. Shortly after the accession of James I Trevor was knighted, probably as a favour to the Howards, who had become the leading faction of the new court. Other offices were showered on Sir John in 1603; in June he was made Steward and Receiver at Windsor Castle for life, in July, Keeper of the Fort at Upnor near Chatham, and in November, Keeper of the Palace and Park of Oatlands in Surrey. Sir John can take little credit for his activities as Surveyor of the Navy. The Commission set up by the king in 1608 to enquire into corruption in the navy reported that Sir John had abused his office by profiteering in purveyance of provisions to the king's ships, being 'the first Surveior that ever since the first erection of the Navie dealt in it.' It condemned the Surveyor, the Treasurer Sir Robert Mansell, and the Master Shipwright, Phineas Pett, for their venture with the Resistance, a ship built out of the king's stores, which sailed as a transport in the fleet carrying the embassy led by the Earl of Nottingham to conclude the peace treaty with Spain in 1605, and which made a profit of 300 from selling off naval stores to the Spaniards. Sir John thought it prudent to retire and sold his office in 1611.

A more legitimate source of profit was the farm of the impositions on the coal trade which was leased to Sir John Trevor I and his three partners in January 1603/4. His papers show Sir John was an active partner and an iron chest 'capable to receave half a yeares profit' together with cash books for receipts and issues were kept at his London house in Cannon Row. He appears to have received an annual dividend of about 1,500 (1,530 in 1624) but his son John who succeeded him in the partnership had some lean years during the Civil War. The Trevors were unable to renew their lease at the Restoration. Sir John had bought the Plas Teg estate near Mold, Flintshire, from his kinsman David Trevor, who was also descended from John Trevor then of Brynkinalt. Here Sir John built a mansion in the early years of the seventeenth century. He married Margaret Trevanion, daughter of Hugh Trevanion, a Cornish gentleman, whose other daughter Elizabeth married Robert Carey, afterwards Earl of Monmouth. Sir John died on 20 February 1629/30 and his widow Lady Trevor quarrelled with her eldest son John over the provision made for her in her late husband's will, but good relations were later re-established by the mediation of their friends.

Sir John Trevor II was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, 1612, and entered the Inner Temple in 1613. In 1619 he was knighted and in February of the same year he married Anne Hampden, the daughter and

His son John Trevor III entered parliament in 1646 as M.P. for Flint, in 1654 he was again returned for Flint and in 1655 he was on the trade committee nominated by the Council of State. John was not a Cromwellian. He spoke in the House against the military rule of the major-generals and he argued in favour of giving the Second Chamber the name of Lords: 'We know what the House of Lords could do. We know not what this "Other House" may do. It may claim to be the House of Commons to open the people's purse at bothe ends.' After the Restoration John Trevor was one of the group of Independents who found a patron in the Duke of Buckingham and it was through the Duke's influence that Trevor was entrusted with confidential missions to France in 1663 and 1668. In 1668 Trevor was knighted and purchased one of the two Secretaryships of State for 8,000, granted only during pleasure and not for life. This should have been the peak of Trevor's achievement but in fact Sir John was little more than a cipher in office. His sympathy with the Dutch and his nonconformist leanings made Charles II unwilling to let him share in the secret diplomacy with France and he was over-shadowed by Arlington, the other Secretary of State. Whether with more freedom of action he might have revealed real ability will never be known for he died of a fever at the early age of 46. His second son Thomas made a brilliant career for himself in the law and at last brought a peerage to the family, the Barony of Trevor of Bromham in Bedfordshire, though its acquisition as one of the twelve peerages created by Queen Anne to save the Tory peace with France in 1711 made it a somewhat doubtful honour.

The elder son of Sir John Trevor III, John Trevor IV, who inherited Glynde in 1679, died in 1686 and his widow Elizabeth Trevor married as her third husband, John, Lord Cutts. (Sussex Notes and Queries, vol. XIV, p. 246.) His son John Morley Trevor came of age in 1702 after a minority of 16 years, and in the same year married Lucy, the daughter of Edward Montagu of Horton, Northants. There were nine daughters of this marriage and only one son John Trevor V. While the younger branch of the Trevors, Thomas, Lord Trevor, and his sons, showed all the family characteristics of thrust and ambition, it seems as though all the ability had gone out of the elder branch of the family. John Trevor V is a melancholy illustration of this point. He was related to the all-powerful Pelhams and sat as M.P. for Lewes in 1741 in the Duke of Newcastle's interest. The Pelhams gave him a good start in life by procuring for him a Commissionership in Admiralty in 1743 which Horace Walpole noted 'is much disliked for he is of no consequence for estate, and less for parts, but is a relation of the Pelhams.' John married Betty Frankland, daughter of Sir Thomas Frankland of Thirkleby, Yorkshire, but she died in 1742 when only 25 and his tragic loss seems to have driven the young man mad. His brother-in-law, George Boscawen, then unaware of Trevor's derangement, considered 'he would never be the man he was till he had got him a wife again.' All the previous historians of the Trevor family have believed that John Trevor V died in a duel but the letters of Colonel Charles Russell in the MSS. of Mrs. Frankland Astley tell the true story. On 31 May 1743 Fanny Russell wrote to her brother Lieut.-Col. Charles Russell about Trevor that 'instead of his growing better he seems to grow worse' and she reported on 17 June that Trevor had challenged Lord Talbot to a duel on a pretended slight to Diana Frankland and two of Trevor's sisters. Lord Talbot behaved with restraint and apologised but later 'Trevor went with Dick to Headly where he did nothing but dance and sing and write challenges all day long, and frightened Dick so much that they sent for his cousin Dr. Trevor to come and take care of him.' In July the rumour spread that he had cut his throat; others thought he had been wounded in a duel. Fanny Russell wrote on 22 July 'I had a letter from Peggy Trevor the other day (who is with Mrs. Boscawen at Windsor) saying that she was very miserable about her brother who was ill of a fever.' The true story seems to be that when they got beyond Northampton he sent his sisters on in the coach, and he would follow them alone in a chaise, 'so like two great fools they left him and by and by the driver stopping to ask about the roads, found poor Trevor making wounds on himself with a pair of scissors. He prayed the coachman to kill him as he was the most miserable man on earth; however the man got help, and Dr. Trevor and Hawkins the surgeon were sent for.' Later he was reported to be much improved but on 14 August Fanny Russell wrote 'The report of poor Mr. Trevor cutting his throat was not true, but he attempted to fling himself out of the window. He is so much worse that he has been taken to Chelsea.' On 21st September Colonel Russell wrote to his wife 'Fanny has sent me a long and dismal account of poor Trevor, that he is at last happily released from his misery.' He was only 27.

John Trevor V bequeathed Glynde and his Sussex estates to his kinsman Dr. Richard Trevor and his heirs while his lands in Wales were to be shared by seven of his eight sisters. The Trevor sisters contested the will, alleging that 'the testator did not make the will of sound mind' but without success.

Richard Trevor, youngest son of Thomas, Lord Trevor, was the first of his family to make the church his profession, an indication that the social status of the clergy was rising by the eighteenth century. He was educated at Queen's College, Oxford; by the age of 20 he was fellow of All Souls; at 24 Doctor of Civil Law and a priest and at 27 Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. In 1744 he became Bishop of St. Davids and in 1752 he was translated to Durham. He was a great favourite with George II and seemed destined for the highest honours. He suffered two disappointments: he failed to secure election as Chancellor of Oxford University because his two opponents combined their votes against him and the greatest prize of all--Canterbury--eluded him. Horace Walpole had reported in 1758 'It is believed that St. Durham goes to Canterbury and St. Asaph follow him' but it was not to be. Walpole's 'St. Durham' was a gibe at Trevor's reputation for saintliness. Even his appearance earned him the nickname of 'the Beauty of Holiness.' He performed his duties as bishop of Durham in a manner that impressed his contemporaries, used to absentee bishops, for he lived 'all the summer months at Durham or Auckland, but chiefly the latter, where he made great improvements in the castle and park and took much exercise in walking.' It was no wonder that the preacher at his funeral said of him that 'never were the shining qualities of the Palatine more justly tempered by the milder graces of the Diocesan.'

The remainder of the year Trevor spent in London or at Glynde. No single owner of Glynde Place did so much to change the appearance of the mansion or the village. He spent a great deal of his considerable income on improving Glynde Place. The entrance to the house was altered and a new range of stables built. The Bishop bought pictures and bronzes to adorn the mansion, transforming the Elizabethan country house to a charming and comfortable residence fit for a man of taste. The old Glynde church was demolished and an elegant Georgian structure erected in its place at the Bishop's expense. The establishment at Glynde revolved around the visits of the new owner, whose influence is reflected in the number of estate papers and accounts for the period 1744-71. The Bishop enlarged the estate by buying properties in Horsted Keynes and Steyning and consolidated the nucleus of the estate in Glynde and Beddingham.

On the Bishop's death in 1771 his eldest brother Robert, 4th Lord Trevor, inherited the Sussex estate. Robert was educated at Queen's College, Oxford, took his B.A. in 1725 and was elected fellow of All Souls in the same year. 'He was a good scholar and a collector of drawings and prints.' Several of his Latin poems 'Britannia,' 'Lathmon' and 'Villa Bromhamensis' were published as 'Poemata Hampdeniana' by his son John at Parma in 1792. Robert had been Secretary of the Legation at the Hague from 1734-9 and minister there from 1739-46. In 1746 he resigned and was appointed a Commissioner of the Revenue in Ireland, 1759, and Joint Postmaster-General, 1759-1765, offices which show that his adherence to the Whigs did not go unrewarded. Robert's distant relative John Hampden, the last of his family, bequeathed all his Buckinghamshire estates to him and in 1776 when Robert was created a viscount he took the title of Viscount Hampden of Great and Little Hampden. According to Horace Walpole the title was obtained through the influence of Robert's son-in-law Henry, [12th] Earl of Suffolk. Robert married Constantia, the daughte of Peter Anthony de Huybert, Lord Van Kruyningen of Holland, and had two sons Thomas and John. Thomas had been M.P. for Lewes in 1768 in the Duke of Newcastle's interest. He married firstly Catherine, the daughter of General David Graeme of Braco Castle, Perth, who died in 1804, and secondly Jane Maria, daughter of George Brown of Ellistoun but had no issue by either wife. Lord Hampden and his first wife were attacked in The Female Jockey Club (1794) 'but the most serious charge against him is his having left the Whigs on the outbreak of the French Revolution, and against her that she was languid and insipid and addicted to musical parties and cardplaying.' Lady Hampden's portrait by Gainsborough hangs in the gallery at Glynde Place. Thomas died in 1824 and his brother John, who had been a diplomatist, British Minister at Munich, 1780, and at Turin, 1783-98, succeeded to the title only to die three weeks later, also without heirs.

Good luck!

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